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Instead, members of minority communities continued to intermediate by providing clerical and skilled labor.

Minorities also helped to establish the first Western education institutions in the region, such as the Syrian Protestant College in Beirut (founded in 1866) and the Jesuits' St. These schools and others in Istanbul, Tunis, Tehran, Algiers, and elsewhere primarily served minority communities and Europeans, though some elite Muslims also attended.

If not, how does one explain the huge gap in scientific output between the Muslim world and the West or East Asia?

And what must change so that science can flourish in Muslim countries?

The deficiency in Muslim science and technology is particularly intriguing given that Muslims were world leaders in science and technology a millennium ago -- something that distinguishes them from, say, the peoples of Latin America or sub-Saharan Africa. As Muslims vied with Chinese for intellectual and scientific leadership, Christian Europe lagged far behind both.

This golden age was definitely Muslim in that it took place in predominantly Muslim societies, but was it Islamic, that is, connected to the religion of Islam?

THE HISTORICAL RECORD We start with a brief history of science and technology in the Muslim world, the first place to search for clues to these questions. represents the approximate apogee of Muslim science, which flourished in Baghdad, Damascus, Cairo, and Cordoba, among other cities.

This, for example, is the proportion of citations of articles published in internationally circulating science journals.

Such societies were founded in Beirut, Cairo, Damascus, and Istanbul in the late nineteenth century, often sponsoring journals that featured translations.

Thus, Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species, published in 1859, was translated in Arabic journals by 1876, though not in book form until 1918.

New universities with an emphasis on engineering and medicine sprang up in Egypt, Turkey, Syria, and the Sudan.

During the depression years, however, reduced employment for graduates and increased discontent over the dominant role of expatriates and minorities constrained science and technology.

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With their aid, the Muslim world accomplished what is now known as a limited transfer of science and technology.

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